Lightwave-driven scanning tunneling microscopy achieves exquisite spatio-temporal resolution through coherent control of tunnel currents with the oscillating field of a single-cycle light pulse. It was first demonstrated at terahertz frequencies , which are particularly well suited to such strong-field control [2,3]. Terahertz scanning tunneling microscopy (THz-STM) has subsequently been used to resolve the picosecond motion of single molecules  and extreme tunnel currents through single silicon atoms , among other exciting recent results . Thanks to its combination of ultrafast temporal resolution with atomic spatial resolution, THz-STM promises further breakthroughs, especially as a tool for exploring new materials. Yet, its unique view also necessitates a deep understanding of how THz-STM measurements relate to the underlying physics of the system, as it may not be visible to any other experimental technique. Here, we establish an experimental  and theoretical  framework for atomically resolved terahertz scanning tunneling spectroscopy, which we believe will be a key modality for future studies of complex dynamics.
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