PALM International School 2018
Attosecond Science: from ultrafast sources to applications

Gif-sur-Yvette near Paris - 28 May to 01 June 2018

PALM Lecturers

Pierre AGOSTINI (Ohio State University, Columbus, USA)
" Overview of attosecond pulse metrology "

Pierre Agostini entered the CEA in 1967 where groundbreaking studies on Multiphoton Ionization had just started. He and coworkers did the first observation of Above-Threshold Ionization in 1979. Collaborations with the FOM, Amsterdam, the LOA, Palaiseau, and Louis DiMauro's group at Brookhaven, launched femtosecond strong field studies including Freeman resonances and Non-Sequential Double Ionization. XUV and soft-Xray pulses through High Harmonics or laser plasmas oriented him to the generation and characterization of XUV pulses and the first demonstration of laser-assisted Auger decay. The same interest lead to the first observation of an attosecond pulse train in 2001. Since 2005, as a Professor at the Ohio State University, his teaching and research have been on Atomic physics, the theory of Strong Field Ionization, Nonlinear Optics, Optics, and Attosecond Pulses.

Charles BOURASSIN-BOUCHET (LCF, Institut d’Optique, Palaiseau, France)
" Attosecond optics: focusing and compressing attosecond pulses with mirrors "

From 2008 to 2011, Charles Bourassin-Bouchet prepared his PhD on the study of optical components for the control of attosecond light pulses in Franck Delmotte’s group, at the Institut d’Optique, France. He then joined the group of Prof. Ian Walmsley in the University of Oxford, United Kingdom, where he worked as a postdoctoral fellow to develop novel approaches for characterizing ultrashort light pulses. Coming back to France in 2013, he focused his research on the temporal metrology of free-electron laser and X-ray laser pulses, first working as a postdodoral fellow in Marie-Emmanuelle Couprie’s group at SOLEIL synchrotron, and then in Annie Klisnick’s group at Orsay’s Institute for Molecular Sciences (ISMO). In september 2016, he was appointed as assistant professor at the Institut d’Optique in Franck Delmotte’s XUV Optics group. He develops new systems and diagnostics to control and characterize the temporal structure of ultrashort XUV pulses.

Jérémie CAILLAT (LCPMR, Sorbonne University , Paris, France)
" Fundamental dynamics at the attosecond time scale: Time and phase in quantum mechanics "

Jérémie Caillat is an Associate Professor at Sorbonne Université with an education in Physical Chemistry and Computational Chemistry.  He teaches Chemistry and conducts his research at the Laboratoire de Chimie Physique — Matière et Rayonnement in the theory group led by Richard Taïeb, together with Alfred Maquet and Alain Dubois. For the last ten years, his main research activity has been devoted to Attosecond Physics and Chemistry and more particularly to establishing the theoretical background of emerging attosecond-resolved pump-probe spectroscopies. A specificity of his work is the development and utilization of simple models designed to provide an intuitive picture of the fundamental dynamics encoded in complex experimental measurements. Convinced that close collaborations with experimentalists would keep him on safe grounds, he ended up looking at experimental pictures of molecular orbitals and, more recently, tracking the motion of photoelectrons in the early stages of their formation.

Francesca CALEGARI (DESY - Photon Science Division, Hamburg, Germany)
" Ultrafast dynamics in large molecules/bio-relevant systems "

Francesca Calegari leads the Attosecond Science division at DESY, and is professor of physics at the University of Hamburg. The main focus of her research is to track and ideally control in real time the electron dynamics occurring in systems with increasing complexity from simple molecules to molecules of biological interest and nanostructured materials. To this purpose, her group develops table-top light sources providing extreme time resolution (from a few femtoseconds down to attoseconds). In her group, XUV attosecond technology is used to understand the role of the electron dynamics in the photo-induced chemical changes that occur in our own biomolecules (e.g. DNA and proteins) in a bottom-up approach. Her research will allow to disclose the physical origin of a variety of light-driven processes of crucial importance in photo-chemistry and photo-biology.

Zenghu CHANG (University of Central Florida, Orlando, USA)
" Attosecond X-rays generated with mid-infrared lasers "

Zenghu Chang is a University Trustee Chair, Pegasus and Distinguished Professor at the University of Central Florida, where he directs the Institute for the Frontier of Attosecond Science and Technology. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and Optical Society of America. His notable contributions include the development of Double Optical Gating and PROOF for generating and characterizing broadband isolated attosecond pulses. His group experimentally demonstrated extension of high-order harmonic cutoff using long-wavelength driving lasers in 2001 and generated 53-as X-ray pulses reaching the carbon K-edge in 2017. He is the author of the book “Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics.”

Louis DIMAURO (Ohio State University, Columbus, USA)
" Fundamentals and Scaling of Strong Field Atomic Physics "

Louis F. DiMauro is Professor of Physics and Hagenlocker Chair at the Ohio State University. He received his BA (1975) from Hunter College, CUNY and his Ph.D. from University of Connecticut in 1980 and was a postdoctoral fellow at SUNY at Stony Brook before arriving at AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1981. He joined the staff at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1988 rising to the rank of senior scientist. In 2004 he joined the faculty at The Ohio State University.

Nicholas KARPOWICZ (Max Planck Institute - Garching, Germany)
" Attosecond optoelectronic metrology "

Nick Karpowicz is a group leader in the Attosecond Physics division at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching, Germany. His research focuses on the coherent detection of broadband electromagnetic fields in the time domain, and how the information contained in these fields can be used to reconstruct the dynamics of charged particles with attosecond temporal resolution. Obtaining sufficient resolution to record the temporal evolution of optical light has previously required the application of attosecond pulses made through the high-harmonic generation process in gases. His group has explored alternatives that allow attosecond experiments without attosecond pulses, including the first use of electro-optic sampling to measure near-infrared waveforms, and the creation of photoconductive switches with more than 1 petahertz bandwith, which have distinct advantages in signal quality and flexibility.

Matthias KLING (Max Planck Institute -  Garching, Germany)
" Attosecond nanophysics "

Matthias Kling is professor at the Department of Physics of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich in Germany. His research is focusing on ultrafast collective electron dynamics in nanoscale materials. He and his Ultrafast Nanophotonics group are employing multi-dimensional imaging techniques to explore the control and attosecond-resolved tracing of strongly coupled electron-nuclear dynamics in molecules, of collective electron dynamics in clusters and nanoparticles (such as plasmons), and of non-linear properties of nanostructured solids as a basis for the development of lightwave nanoelectronics.

Anne L’HUILLIER (Department of Physics, Lund University, Sweden)
" Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation "

Anne L'Huillier, defended her thesis in 1986 at the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, in Saclay, France. After short postdoctoral visits, she was employed there as researcher until 1995. She moved to Lund University, Sweden and became full professor in 1997. Her research is centered around high-order harmonic generation in gases and its applications, in particular in attosecond science. She has in particular investigated the macroscopic aspects of high-order harmonic generation and its effect on the radiation properties. Her current research deals with attosecond source development and optimization as well as with applications, e.g. the measurement of photoionization time delays in atomic systems.

Maciej LEWENSTEIN (Institute of Photonic Sciences, Barcelona, Spain)
" Sinfonia en la, do e fa (sinfonia in Approssimazione del Campo Forte) "

Maciej Lewenstein graduated at Warsaw University in 1978. He joined the Centre for Theoretical Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, where he remained for 15 years, becoming a professor in 1993. He finished his PhD in Essen in 1983 and habilitated in 1986 in Warsaw. He has spent several long term visits at Universitaet Essen, at Harvard University with Roy J. Glauber (Nobel 2005), at Commisariat a l'Énergie Atomique in Saclay and at Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics at Boulder. He was on faculty of CEA in Saclay (1995-1998), of the Leibniz University Hannover (1998-2005). In 2005 he moved to Catalonia as ICREA Research Professor to lead the quantum optics theory group (now 25 people) at the Institut de Ciències Fotòniques in Castelldefels. His interests include quantum optics, quantum physics, quantum information, many body theory, attosecond science, and statistical physics. His other passion is jazz and avant-garde music - he is an acclaimed jazz writer and critic.

Matteo LUCCHINI (Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy)
" Attosecond photoemission dynamics in solids "

Matteo Lucchini is Assistant Professor at Politecnico di Milano, where he is in charge of two attosecond beam-lines and conducts experiments on correlated materials using full-optical techniques based on attosecond or femtosecond harmonic radiation. During his academic career, he worked on several topics at the frontier of Attosecond Science. In his PhD, he worked on the implementation of a new technique for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses (named Ionization Gating) and on the application of such pulses to the study of ultrafast dynamics in small diatomic molecules with time- and angular-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using a velocity-map-imaging spectrometer. In his Post-Doc at ETH Zürich, he devoted his efforts to transfer attosecond techniques in solid targets for the study of electron dynamics. In particular, he worked on photoemission dynamics from noble metals like copper, silver and gold, studying the formation of phenomena like screening and effective mass with sub-femtosecond resolution. He also performed attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy to study strong-field physics in dielectrics like diamond and gallium arsenide.

Yann MAIRESSE (CELIA, Bordeaux University, France)
" High harmonic spectroscopy "

Yann Mairesse is a researcher at CNRS, working at CELIA, Université de Bordeaux. He obtained his PhD in 2005 in Saclay, working on the generation and characterization of attosecond pulses. He then spent 18 months at NRC Ottawa working on high-harmonic spectroscopy of diatomic and triatomic molecules. He joined the high-harmonic team at CELIA in 2007, and works with his colleagues on the measurement of ultrafast molecular dynamics using high-harmonic spectroscopy and ultrashort XUV pulses. In particular, investigating ultrafast chiral reactivity is currently one of his main research topics.

Christian OTT (Max Planck Institute – Heidelberg, Germany)
" Correlated systems in weak and strong fields "

Christian Ott studied Physics at the University of Würzburg in Germany and Optoelectronics and Lasers at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, Scotland. He obtained his PhD in 2012 from the University of Heidelberg. With a Feodor Lynen research fellowship by the Alexander von Humboldt foundation he spent a two-year postdoc at the University of California at Berkeley, USA. Since 2016 he is staff scientist and group leader at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. His research activities include the investigation of strong-field light-matter interaction of multi-electron dynamics driven both by lab-based (HHG) and large-facility (FEL) light sources. Techniques cover the use of attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy on both small (multi-electron excitations in rare gas atoms) and more complex (ultrafast dynamics in the condensed phase) systems. Special focus is put on the investigation and control of spectral line shapes in absorption spectroscopy, recently also with intense XUV light from SASE FELs.

Fabien QUERE (LIDYL, CEA-Saclay, France)
" Ultrafast dynamics of plasma mirrors in intense laser fields "

After a PhD obtained in 2000 on the mechanisms of optical breakdown of dielectric solids in the femtosecond regime, Fabien Quéré has worked as a post-doctoral fellow in Paul Corkum’s group. There, he contributed to the development of methods for the temporal measurement of attosecond pulses of light. In 2003, he became a tenure researcher at CEA Saclay, where he made further contributions to attosecond metrology. He then focused on the study of the physics of dense plasmas in ultraintense laser fields, and in particular on the generation of attosecond pulses by plasma mirrors. His recent research is on the metrology of spatio-temporal couplings of high-power femtosecond laser beams, and the use of these couplings for the control of high-intensity laser-plasma interactions.

David REIS (PULSE, Stanford University, USA)
" High harmonic generation in solids : fundamentals and parallels to the gas-phase "

David Reis obtained his PhD from the University of Rochester in 1999.  From 1999-2008 he was a post-doc, Assistant and then Associate Professor at the University of Michigan.  He currently serves as Deputy Director of the Stanford PULSE Institute and is an Associate Professor of Applied Physics and Photon Science at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.  His research interests are in experimental optical, x-ray and condensed matter physics with an emphasis on ultrafast and strong-field phenomena.  His  group investigates non-equilibrium phonon dynamics and  nonlinear x-ray optics and solid-state high-harmonic generation.

Thierry RUCHON (LIDYL, CEA-Saclay, France)
" Transfer of angular momentum in highly nonlinear processes "

Thierry Ruchon is a researcher at LIDYL laboratory in Saclay. His latest focus was the study of conservation rules during High Harmonic Generation, especially the conservation of angular momenta. In particular, his team demonstrated the synthesis of femtosecond and attosecond beams carrying Orbital Angular Momentum of arbitrary values through HHG. Through a collaboration with the CELIA team of Yann Mairesse, he also investigated means to generate efficiently and with high degree of ellipticity attosecond and femtosecond beams carrying a spin angular momentum. This led to the first observation of chiral differential dynamics on femtosecond and attosecond time scale in the gas phase. He is also responsible for the operation of the Attosecond server FAB10@attolab which offers access to a calibrated attosecond source with a 10 kHz rep-rate to external users.

Robin SANTRA (DESY and Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany)
" Electronic decoherence and correlation effects in attosecond science "

Robin Santra is a Professor of Theoretical Physics jointly appointed by DESY and the University of Hamburg. He obtained his PhD at the University of Heidelberg in Germany in 2001. After working as a postdoctoral research associate at JILA (University of Colorado, Boulder) and at ITAMP (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), he joined Argonne National Laboratory in 2005 as a staff scientist. In 2008, he was in addition appointed an Associate Professor Part-time in the Department of Physics at the University of Chicago. In 2010, Robin Santra joined the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) in Hamburg as head of the CFEL-DESY Theory Division. Robin Santra's research covers the areas of Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics and Theoretical Chemical Physics. He is particularly interested in the ionization dynamics and inner-shell physics of atoms, molecules, and clusters; strong-field and electron-correlation effects in the EUV and x-ray regimes; applications of short-wavelength free-electron lasers; ultrafast laser-induced phenomena; electronic many-body theory; and non-Hermiticity in quantum mechanics.

Olga SMIRNOVA (Max Born Institute, Berlin, Germany)
" Strong field ionization: ionization times and electron spin polarization "

Olga Smirnova is the head of Theory Group at the Max Born Institute and Professor of Theoretical Physics at Technical University Berlin, Germany. She has received her PhD from the Moscow State University in 2000. From 2000 to 2003 she worked as Assistant Professor (tenured) at the Moscow State University. In 2003 she moved to the Vienna Technical University as Lise Meitner Fellow, and in 2005 she joined the theory group at the Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, NRC Canada, becoming permanent staff member in 2006. In 2009 she moved to the Max Born Institute in Berlin to start her own theory group, which focuses on using intense light fields to image and control attosecond dynamics in atoms and molecules.

Marc VRAKKING (Max Born Institute, Berlin, Germany)
" Molecular Movies/attosecond dynamics in molecules "

Marc Vrakking obtained his Phd from the University of California at Berkeley in 1992. From 1997 he led a group at the AMOLF Institute in Amsterdam, investigating the application of ultrashort (femtosecond and attosecond) extreme ultra-violet light pulses towards time-resolved studies of atomic and molecular dynamics. In March 2010 he became one of the directors of the Max Born Institute (MBI) in Berlin, in combination with a professorship at the FU Berlin. At the MBI a research program focusing on novel ultrafast probes of electron dynamics and molecular rearrangement has been established.
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