Personal web page : http://iramis.cea.fr/spec/Phocea/Membres/Annuaire/index.php?uid=caltimir
Laboratory link : http://iramis.cea.fr/spec/GNE/
More : https://nanoelectronicsgroup.com/
Challenging our classical intuition, quantum tunneling has fascinated physicists for decades. Very soon after its discovery, it raised the question of how much time do particles spend under the classically forbidden barrier. Despite its simplicity, such a question is ill defined in terms of quantum observables and does not admit a single answer, thus triggering over the past decades a bunch of different definitions corresponding to different (thought) scenarios.
Following a proposal by Büttiker & collaborators , we will address this question from the perspective of a well-defined observable: that is, measuring the spectrum of time fluctuations of the number of particles residing within the classically forbidden barrier. The idea is to exploit semiconducting 2D electron gases where electrostatically coupled metallic gates are used to generate the electrostatic potential barrier upon which the electrons are scattered. Moreover, we will equally use them to collect the mirror influence-charges fluctuating in response to the tunneling electrons residing within the electrostatic barrier. Despite its conceptual simplicity, implementing such a scenario is a formidable task since it demands collecting a tiny radiofrequency (RF) signal emitted by a huge output-impedance source in a sub-Kelvin (dilution) refrigerator. We will build upon the group’s expertise in RF design and ultra-low noise measurements in cryogenic environments in order to overcome this challenge, notably implementing recently developed high impedance RF matching circuits  allowing us to efficiently collect the signal into a RF detection chain.
In a second step, we will perform similar measurements in experimental conditions where electron-electron interactions strongly modify the transport properties across the barrier. Notably a metal/insulator quantum phase transition is driven by such interactions when a 1D wire is interrupted by an impurity, mimicking Tomonaga-Lutinger liquid dynamics . We wish to investigate this physics from the original perspective of the electron tunneling time, as put forward by a recent theoretical finding .
The student will participate to the radiofrequency design of the samples, to their fabrication in a clean-room environment, and to their measurement exploiting low noise measurement techniques both in the near DC and the few GHz range. He will become familiar with sub-Kelvin cryogenic techniques as well.
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 Rolland et al., https://arxiv.org/abs/1810.06217
 Anthore et al., Phys. Rev. X 8, 031075 (2018)
 Altimiras, Portier and Joyez, Phys. Rev. X 6, 031002 (2016)