"Modern laser application in medicine, environmental and life science"
Peter HERING Institute for Laser Medicine, University of Duesseldorf, caesar research center
Thu, Oct. 19th 2006, 11:00
LIDYL Bât 522, p 138, CEA-Saclay
Trace gas analysis with cavity ring down spectroscopy:
Breath tests provide a non-invasive tool for monitoring several physiological processes in the human organism. Small amounts of different metabolites find their way into the exhaled air. Laser based methods for the detection of such trace gases are fast and selective. In principal an optical fingerprint is recorded by an infrared laser spectrometer. This allows the detection of smallest concentrations down to 1:10-10 ((ppt range) with a time resolution of less than a second. An example of ethane as an unique biomarker for cell damages will be given as well as NO, which is produced in the human organism and fulfils various useful purposes, e.g. regulation of the blood pressure. Environmental relevant molecules like 12CO2,13CO2, methane, ethane or formaldehyde can also be detected with extremely high sensitivity.
Laser ablation in medicine and material processing:
Hard tissue interventions are still performed with mechanical instruments, mainly with free hands. A novel laser osteotomy technique allows a non-contact cutting and 3D removal of bone and cartilage tissue without thermal damage and with arbitrary sophisticated cut geometry. It opens ways to new operation procedures and promises shorter healing periods. An extremely fast and precise PC-controlled beam deflector guides the CO2 laser beam over the tissue, combined with a computer assisted navigation system. A sealed short pulsed CO2-laser system used together with special beam-scanning algorithms enables us to produce very fine cuts (100-μm width) as well as deep cuts. The absence of thermal side effects after osteotomy with caesar's laser has been confirmed in detailed histological studies and animal trials. An additional advantage of the laser treatment is that it does not produce traumatic vibrations and any bone dust or metal abrasion, like in the case of a mechanical saw / milling cutter.
Laser and Computer Assisted Surgery:
The human-machine partnership in a complicated surgery situation is important because it offers the possibility both of significantly improving the efficiency, safety, and cost effectiveness of existing clinical procedures and of developing new ones that cannot be performed at all otherwise. Advances in imaging have enabled huge progress in medical interventions. New imaging procedures with digital radiography, virtual endoscopy, spiral CT
and interventional MR guarantee better results. We added a new ultra fast holographic method for precise 3D facial reconstruction.