Firstly reported in the 80’s, rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li/S) batteries have received ever-increasing attention since 10 years. Indeed, elemental sulfur (S8) is a promising positive electrode material due to its high theoretical specific capacity of 1675 mAh.g-1, much greater than the 100-250 mAh.g-1 achievable with the conventional lithium-ion positive electrode materials . Assuming full conversion of S8 to Li2S, theoretical gravimetric and volumetric energy density values of 2600 Wh.kg-1 and 2800 Wh.l-1 can be obtained. In practical, complete Li/S cells are expected to reach gravimetric energy densities from 300 up to 600 Wh.kg-1. Those values, combined with low cost, non-toxicity and environmentally abundance of sulfur, make Li/S batteries one of the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems . This technology has attracted attention of the electrochemistry community for many years. However, several limitations still exist, which are mainly correlated to the non-conventional discharge mechanism of Li/S cell, not based on conventional intercalation reactions but on dissolution/precipitation phenomena. In this presentation, a review of the recent developments done at CEA-LITEN on lithium batteries and more precisely on lithium/sulfur system will be presented.
 B.L. Ellis, K.T. Lee, L.F. Nazar, Chem. Mater. 22 (2010) 691-714
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