Dispositif pour la synthèse de nanoparticules de type c½ur-coquille par pyrolyse laser pour les accumulateurs Li-ion.
Discovering and mastering new technologies for energy (NTE) are major issues for diversifying our energy production, its conversion and optimization of the energy storage, while better managing the emissions of greenhouse gases ("low carbon" energy).
In that field, IRAMIS carry material research for new energy technologies, based on its fundamental research in nanoscience, nanochemistry and functionalization of nano-objects, including:
The production of electrical energy (photovoltaïc, fuel cells, thermoelectricity)
The optimized energy management (water photoelectrolysis, electrical energy storage in batteries or supercapacitors - but also chemical recycling, with the conversion of CO2 into high value molecules.
Recycling of critical materials, which is a challenge for the development of new energies.
IRAMIS develops a complementary activity on the cleanup and recycling of rare elements, two strategic thematics in the scope of the energy transition.
The development of new technologies for energy implies mastering the process of conversion between the different forms (solar, thermal, chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc.), as well as storage processes:
Solar energy can be directly transformed into electrical energy via the photovoltaic process and stored in accumulators. It can also be transformed directly into chemical energy (hydrogen) by photocatalysis. Electrical energy of every origin, can also be stored in the form of hydrogen, which can be used in fuel cells. The conversion efficiency is directly related to that of the associated electrochemical process (during electrolysis or use in a cell).
The thermoelectric effects Seebeck and Peltier allow the conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy and vice versa. Using the Seebeck effect allows recovering waste heat to produce electricity. Conversely, it is possible the Peltier effect allows locally cooling a device by application of a gradient of electrical potential. For a long time, these thermoelectric effects have very low yields and thus have found only marginal applications. The discovery of new promising materials, advances in nanofabrication and the growing desire to respond to energy saving requirements have revived research in this area.
Physicians and chemists of IRAMIS work to develop and optimize these different methods :
Les neutrons constituent une sonde particulièrement intéressante pour étudier la structure des matériaux : ceci en particulier grâce à leur faible absorption permettant de travailler sur des pièces d'épaisseur centimétrique, et aussi grâce à la relative facilité de réaliser des expériences en conditions complexes (températures élevées, matériau sous contraintes, ...). Les études portent principalement sur :
La diffusion de neutrons permet ainsi l'étude fine des matériaux métallurgiques, dont notamment ceux entrant dans la concetion des réacteurs nucléaires.
Neutrons are highly interesting to probe the structure of materials: due to low absorption, centimeter-thick pieces can be studied, with a relative ease of performing experiments in complex conditions (high temperatures , material under stress ...). The studies focus on:
Theoretical chemistry studies (quantum chemistry, classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations) at LCCEF focus on lanthanides and actinides compounds. Domains of application are medical imaging (e.g., MRI) and nuclear sciences. The goal of these theoretical studies is to design new molecular frameworks in liquid state.
Some methodological developments are also conducted. Especially, polarizable force fields are constructed in collaboration with DCMR laboratory at Ecole Polytechnique.